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Cross tabulation also known as cross-tab or contingency table is a statistical tool that is used for categorical data. Categorical data involves values that are mutually exclusive to each other. Data is always collected in numbers, but numbers have no value unless they mean something. 4,7,9 are simply numerical unless until specified. For example, 4 apples, 7 bananas, and 9 kiwis.
Cross tabulation is usually used to examine the relationship within the data that is not evident. It is quite useful in market research studies and in surveys. A cross table report shows the connection between two or more question asked in the survey.
While deploying a survey if the survey creator decides to send the survey to two different groups of people, cross tabulation helps to compare side by side, the responses of the two groups.
Cross-tab is a popular choice for statistical data analysis. Since it is a reporting/ analyzing tool it can used with any level of data: ordinal or nominal, because it treats all data as nominal data (nominal data is not measured it is categorised).
For example you can analyze the relationship between two categorical variables like gender and income, you can use cross tabulation to understand if there is a significant relationship between the two categorical variables you are interested in. Cross-tab is usually performed on categorical data like in software applications and surveys.
In surveys, crosstab allows the survey creator to deep dive and analyze the prospective data, making it simpler to spot trends and opportunities without getting overwhelmed with all the data gathered from the responses.